Ancient rocks reveal how Earth’s magnetic field bounced back to save life on the planet


New Delhi: Earth’s solid inner core formed 550 million years ago and restored our planet’s magnetic field. economy fate of Mars, suggest a team of scientists from the University of Rochester.

Earth’s outer core generates our planet’s protective magnetic field, which is vital for life on the planet. The magnetic field protects (CHECK) Earth from the sun’s radiation streams.

Researchers believe Mars once had a magnetic field, but the field dissipated, leaving the planet vulnerable to solar wind and stripping the surface of water.

However, around 565 million years ago, the strength of the magnetic field decreased to 10% of what it is today. Then, mysteriously, the field rebounded, regaining its strength just before multicellular life emerged on the planet.

According to researchers at the University of Rochester, this rejuvenation occurred within a few tens of millions of years – rapid on geological time scales – and coincided with the formation of the Earth’s solid inner core, suggesting that the nucleus is probably a direct cause.

For the study, the researchers analyzed rock samples that rose to the Earth’s surface from the core. These contain tiny magnetic particles that lock into the direction and strength of the magnetic field as the minerals cool from their molten state.

By studying the magnetism locked in ancient crystals – a field known as paleomagnetism – researchers have determined that 550 million years ago the magnetic field began to rapidly renew itself after a near collapse 15 million years ago.

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DeepMind’s AI predicts the structures of nearly every protein known to science

AlphaFold — an artificial intelligence system — has completed predictions of the three-dimensional structures of almost all cataloged proteins known to science freely and openly available to the scientific community,

AlphaFold, developed by Google’s DeepMind, is a system designed to predict protein structure.

In collaboration with DeepMind, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory European Institute of Bioinformatics (EMBL-EBI) has made the data freely and openly available to the scientific community, via the AlphaFold protein structure database.

The database is enlarged approximately 200 times, from almost a million protein structures to over 200 million, covering nearly every organism on Earth whose genome has been sequenced.

The expansion of the database includes predicted structures for a wide range of species, including plants, bacteria, animals and other organisms, opening up new avenues of research in the life sciences that will have an impact on global challenges – including sustainability, food insecurity, and neglected diseases.

Proteins are made up of a chain of amino acids. But how these molecules interact with each other determines how the protein folds, which in turn predicts the functions and properties of the protein.

While genetic sequencing reveals the chain of amino acids in proteins of any organism, determining protein structure has so far been a daunting task for the scientific community.

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Study disproves claim that T Rex comprises three different species

A research team led by researchers from the American Museum of Natural History and Carthage College has refuted a claim fact earlier this year that fossils classified as the dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex represent three separate species.

The rebuttal concludes that the earlier proposal lacks sufficient evidence to split the emblematic species.

According to the research team, although the T Rex fossils collected and examined so far are of different sizes and shapes, these variations are too minor to separate the fossils into different species.

The team added data points from 112 species of living birds and four non-avian dinosaurs. They found that the multiple species argument was based on a limited comparative sample and inappropriate statistical techniques.

A newly discovered chemical reaction may explain how life began on Earth

Scientists have discovered a new set of chemical reactions it likely sparked life on Earth – using cyanide, ammonia, and carbon dioxide – all considered common on early Earth.

These chemicals then generated amino acids and nucleic acids – the building blocks of proteins and DNA.

In addition to providing insight into early Earth chemistry, the newly discovered chemical reactions are also useful in certain manufacturing processes, such as generating custom-labeled biomolecules from inexpensive raw materials, according to the team from the Scripps Research Institute.

The team had show earlier this year how cyanide can enable the chemical reactions that transform prebiotic molecules and water into the basic organic compounds necessary for life.

This reaction can be initiated at room temperature. They then discovered that there was a way to generate amino acids – more complex molecules that make up the proteins of all known living cells – in the same way.

Read also : NASA decodes why some planets have sand clouds


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